MIT Healthcare Financing Lecture

mit_crest_logoIf 2014 had a narrative arc, it would look like a series of sprints – from obtaining visas, starting a new job, moving apartments to being in a new industry – all leaving me just enough room to catch my breath before the next leg begins. Amongst the many life-sprints that have occurred, one particular sprint has been most unexpected and rewarding – both personally and professionally.

It started in Dec, 2013 – when I received an email from a friend whose paths I crossed during my Nairobi days in late 2012. She offered the opportunity for me to become a guest lecturer at MIT Sana’s spring course on Global Health Informatics to Improve the Quality of Care. They were looking for someone to speak about financing in healthcare in rural/resource-limiting settings. Truthfully, it has never crossed my mind that I would be lecturing at MIT especially at this stage of my career/life, but embracing Sheryl Sandberg’s philosophy of “if you’re offered a seat on a rocket ship, don’t ask what seat! Just get on!”, I accepted and found my way to the MIT campus in the beginning of March to deliver my lecture.

The course itself  “focuses on innovations in information systems to accelerate improvements of health outcomes in developing countries. The course will focus not only on technology and mHealth as it applies to global health, but also on broader issues necessary for the successful deployment of information systems such as quality of care, disease burden, and project management. This is the fourth iteration of the course, which is a collaborative offering from Sana, MIT, Partners in Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard Medical School, and a network of international partner academic institutions located around the globe.” – MIT Sana

During my lecture, 400 students were watching from 45 locations around the world. The lecture itself was a very basic introduction to financing as most of the students do not have finance or investing backgrounds. It will also be turned into an official MOOC edX/MITx curriculum in 2015! If you’re interesting in watching my lecture, it is available online.


Thank you Sarah, for this amazing opportunity.

Responsibilities of an (Impact) Investor

For the past few months, I have been reflecting a lot on my role as an investor. Business plans and proposals come across my desk and as I shift through them, it really struck me on how large a responsibility investors play in accelerating trends, shaping a community or even country’s economy, but yet how little this responsibility is spoken about in the investing circles. We place so much emphasis on finding the right business, the right management team, the right social impact, that sometimes we get lost in our own capacity to recognize what really is innovative and what truly deserves to be funded. So, from my experiences, here’s what I think an investor’s responsibilities are on top of the typical investment work:

1) Investors need to live in the future. 

This is a point I feel very strongly about. If you’re an investor: VC/PE and particularly if you play in the startup and impact investing work, (as Fred Wilson pointed today in his blog post and what Paul Graham said):  you should live in the future and see what is missing. So well said. I’m currently in an environment (yes, I recognize that I am in Africa – so feel free to shower stereotypes), where I know investors who are still using yahoo mail, internet explorer and Windows 2003 (true story!). Not to say that there are anything wrong with the products, but more so – I think it’s so important to be keeping up with the trends in the world, technology being one of them. How can you expect to identify an investment that is ‘ground-breaking’ if you’re not even following the newest trends in your sector? Taking this a step further, if you are following these global trends vs. local trends, it is then our responsibility to seek out entrepreneurs who can close this gap and further elevate the developing world, or the developing world would forever be playing ‘catch up’.

2) Don’t be a sheep. 

This responsibility is particularly important in the impact investing space. Given that we’re playing in a field that is largely uncharted, risk is high and typically, most investors are unable to size up a new market and end up relying on the opinions of other investors. aka. I’ll invest if someone else will too aka. a sheep. Impact investors say that they are risk tolerant, but few translate this tolerance into signing along the dotted line. A very chicken and egg situation. Hence, I have to constantly push myself to understand what is the right balance of being a market leader but also not be a reckless investor. Balance is key.

3) The need to close and disburse faster

There are a lot of delays that occur in [impact] investing. The courting of investors and [social] entrepreneurs, the dance between finding the right termsheet, the issue of making sure that the social impact actually has an impact, and [insert your traditional delays in investing here]. This is the norm. This is my challenge to investors: recognize that the longer the delay, the bigger the strain on the business/organization. From an entrepreneur perspective, you’re constantly watching your ‘runway’ aka. how much money do I have before I run out, and a delayed closing round and disbursement is to the [social] entrepreneur’s disadvantage as well as to their customers. If we’re really standing with the poor, then deals need to close quicker with clear and simple terms, as the longer the delay, the more people are missing out on potentially experiencing the product/service.

This is by no means supposed to be an exhaustive list of responsibilities, but instead ones that I feel are most important given my experience. As investors, we are in a privileged position to start/continue or end trends. I think it’s time that we started thinking a little harder about where our responsibilities lie.

My Week’s Discoveries: Malaysia

So, I’ve been in South East Asia for the past three weeks, namely Malaysia and Singapore. The trip has been long time coming as I haven’t been back to my home country in over five years, and boy – am I ever glad I did. I have never been so inspired, humbled and proud of my fellow countrymen for the incredible work that they are doing in South East Asia. If you have the privilege to be involved with their organizations or have a coffee with these remarkable individuals, I assure you that it will be time well spent. Also, given that today is Independence day in Malaysia, thought it would be timely to share a few of my discoveries with you.

1) Malaysia Social Enterprise Alliance

This is a Malaysian organization for social enterprises and entrepreneurs with solutions to some of the most urgent social problems in Malaysia and globally. One of their more notable endeavors is ChangeWeekend, a 9-10 month program as a facilitative platform that would equip organizations with design thinking and developmental skills. Even more incredible is the driving force behind all of this is a wonderful lady, Ellynita Lamin, who has a heart of gold and is trailblazing her way in this part of the world. Don’t just take my word for it, check out what one of the local newspapers has to say about her work too!

2) Teach for Malaysia 

Teach for Malaysia (TFM) enlists Malaysia’s most promising leaders to improve education in Malaysia. It models after Teach for America, where it is a two-year, fellowship program where fellows are placed in local schools. Besides the fellowship, the team has not only enlisted an incredible amount of support from private and the Ministry of Education, but clear strategy and vision in how fellows can transform Malaysia’s education system from inside out. Change is on the horizon. This initiative is particularly close to home for me as I went through the public education system in Malaysia (yes, just like the adorable kids in the video!) and to get a glimpse of what TFM is up to, check out the video below.

3) Weekend: The Weekend Movement 

This is a community of people that is creating a weekend movement where they come together to build projects, create solutions and bring great ideas to life. So far, their weekends consist of Hack Weekend, Make Weekend and Change Weekend, and I’m sure it doesn’t stop there. The weekends are designed to kickstart innovation and new projects. If you ever are in Malaysia for a weekend that coincides with one of their workshops, definitely don’t hesitate to check it out!

4) Malaysia Design Archive 

This is a beautiful project combining design, history and preservation of culture. The project traces, maps and documents the development of graphic design in Malaysia to protect our visual history. Malaysia’s historical design influences are particularly fascinating as this is a meeting point and cultural crossing of the East and West – from ornate Islamic texts, to Chinese calligraphy and European engravings. As you browse the site, the graphics tell a wonderful story of Malaysia’s cultural transformation. I highly recommend you start here.

5) Other notable mentions:

  • SOLS 24/7: education program in Cambodia, Laos, East Timor, Malaysia and Thailand that has educated over 80,000 youth.
  • Gawad Kalinga: Building communities through tourism, social enterprise, disaster relief, reconstruction and development to end poverty.

Thanks to Ellyne, Shie Haur, Nicole, Tasnim and John for inspiring this post.

Design Gym: Learn design thinking and solve real world problems

How do you solve real world problems with a human-centered lens? How do create a product that is effective and beautiful? Where can you find a community of thinkers that have the skills and process to solve wicked problems? Where do you find an accessible avenue to learn design thinking that is pragmatic and  affordable?

A few months ago, myself and a group of strategists and designers set out to solve this challenges and emerged with a really exciting concept:

The Design Gym, a community of skilled problem solvers through a workshop-driven design thinking curriculum. We partner with organizations to help them approach their problems in a new way by connecting their challenges with our community.

Our inaugural project is a weekend long intensive at the Brooklyn Brainery from July 27th – 29th, 2012. We’re kicking the weekend off on Friday night with beers, networking and an intro to design thinking. Saturday will be a deep dive into the design process, methods and best practices, and finishing off on Sunday with a hands on application of skills solving a real-world problem. Don’t worry if you don’t have a design or strategy background. We’re all here to learn, and see a problem from a different perspective. Sounds like you want to know more? Sign up here, spread the word (we’re on twitter too!) and bring a friend!

If you’re an organization/company/non-profit and are interested in partnering with us, please feel free to email me. I would love to chat with you. If you have any questions, please email me. If you would like to trade stories about the space or learn more about the project or even just to say hi, please email me. I think you get the picture! I will reply! Seriously.

A huge shoutout to my team, who are kick-ass all round. Go stalk them: Andrew Hagerman, Daniel Stillman, Jason Wisdom & Miles Begin.

How to Create an Impact Investing Movement

I’ve been stalking the impact investing space closely for the last few years and it seems that across research papers, from the recently released Acumen FundMonitor Group: Case for Philanthropy in Impact Investing (which is a great read!) to goals of foundation tackling impact investing – a systemic issue that resurfaces is the lack of infrastructure to help people identify and function as a part of the impact industry. A recent conversation with a friend on movement creation sparked this idea on figuring out how to build this infrastructure. It also reminded me of a old twitter exchange I had with Steve Wright (Grameen Foundation) and Kevin Jones (SOCAP) on the value of marketing and storytelling in the social context. A snippet of our conversation is below:

I believe that marketing/value-positioning is an undervalued practice in the impact investing space. However, if we’re looking to expand the space beyond those who care about the impact value of capital, we have a to start looking at creating a movement of impact investing – a sustainable and scalable platform. We have to look closely on how we can create pull-factors needed for a successful impact movement. Now, I am not as naive to think that the world of philanthropy and for-profit investing should cease to exist. What I am suggesting is that the movement’s aim is to help the general public and those in the investing world to have a third way to think about capital: a blended value of capital and impact.

So, this is my attempt to build this movement’s basic framework and my vision of what core elements of an impact investing movement would contain and look like.

Defining the Movement’s Core

Education is the key to the movement and a first step is shifting people’s perspective to a third way to think about capital. I would like people to think of their portfolios as follow (Note: the pie charts below are based on a hypothetical way to think about capital – main point is to illustrate the inclusion of impact investments when an individual thinks of capital):

I believe the core of an impact investing movement should be two-fold:

1) The choice between impact and profit should not be a binary one.

2) Close the mental disconnects and isolation between the different components of the Impact chain of capital: (Input –> Output –> Impact)

Distinction of Target Groups 

Just like the ‘real’ investing world, in the impact investing world, there are two distinct investors to target: Institutional and Retail. By the nature of the way that capital flows into the space, influence on the retail end is bottom heavy + personal and on the institutional side, it is top heavy and politically barriered. (Sidenote: A great report to read to understand the institutional-policy relationship in impact investing written by Pacific Community Ventures & Harvard Uni).

Another target group (and this is admittedly the harder group to penetrate than the former) would be both institutional and retail investment advisors. Straight away, the inherent challenge to create this movement is how to create a simultaneous pressure on both ends and in each respective groups.

Five Strategies

In creating this ‘pull’ platform, because capital flows through a system through an impact chain, the platform should become the mechanism by which ‘push’ platforms must engage in. The graphic below illustrates this point using the recently announced Morgan Stanley Investing with Impact platform. The idea is that on Morgan Stanley’s end, they can only get so far by engaging their current clients. However, if they look beyond their Investing with Impact platform, and engage in a middle ‘pull’ platform that educates the masses, their message and reach would more than double.

I believe that a successful impact investing ‘pull’ movement would contain the following practices:

 1) Radically lower knowledge barriers

The landscape of impact investing is slowly coming to light. There is great research and data that heavily supports the sector. However, bite size pieces of information are far and few in between. Investors and advisors need understand: the reason for impact investing, proof of concept, and how it would affect an institution’s or individual’s portfolio. The knowledge barrier should also include a way to disseminate authentic and real stories (see: twitter exchange above) about impact investing and the results of the investment – a form of curated ‘entertainment’.

2) Uncover and disrupt offline analogies

Most form of human interactions surround a pre-existing way of thinking. e.g. before email, people would send letters. In the case of thinking about capital, the tipping points of where someone starts to think about money is in the education system, with a focus on universities and college (typically an individual’s first experience in managing a substantial amount of money).

3) Empower key community leaders

I’m a big fan of Seth Godin’s practice of building tribes. People are more passionate about this issue than you think they are. A great organization that organically (and perhaps unexpectedly) tapped into the power of tribes is Acumen Fund. (Full disclosure: I currently volunteer with them, and this is by no means a representation of their perspective on the matter. Just my own). Acumen Fund currently has 12 volunteer-led chapters around the world that support and spread their cause. These chapters are going into local communities with a depth and reach that Acumen would not have been able to achieve just by themselves.

4) Reduce friction

Thinking about capital – can be an overwhelming experience, especially on the retail side. The movement needs to create a frictionless and simple experience that catalyzes ‘pull’ for transactional activities. A great example of this practice is by LearnVest, a budgeting and advisory platform to help individuals achieve their goals. Simple and clear. I envision a successful impact investing platform to embrace a similar frictionless user experience.

 5) Getting started

No single agenda or strategy is equally relevant to all target groups. I see two main engagement strategies embedded in the movement, which in some cases can be executed separately or combined. One is a online-mass led proposition with multiple knowledge engagement pieces. The other is a high-touch with direct channel distribution. The latter would fit in more with the advisory/’push’ platform engagement target group whereas the former would fit into a engaging retail investors. The high-touch component is definitely more of a challenge as we would be looking at a target group of banks/corporations/venture capitalist that have systems in place in order to achieve execute their business model.


There are multiple ways to continue to build out this framework. The points above are merely a starting point in the basic wireframe of this impact investing movement. All ideas are welcome, and if you want to have a brainstorm session about this – hit me up!

Thanks to Erika, Jo-Ann, Steve and Kevin for inspiring this post.

Sacred Economics Ramblings

Sacred Economics with Charles Eisenstein – A Short Film from Ian MacKenzie on Vimeo.

One of my favorite quotes of all-time is that  “once in a while it really hits people that they don’t have to experience the world in the way they have been told to.” -Alan Keightley. Simple yet powerful. We grow up in a world where pre-existing structures of society and norms are already in place. We struggle with our need to fit into the system, somewhere, somehow. But when I watched this 12 min video, I was reminded of that quote once more. That we don’t have to live in our single story.

I love the message of the video particularly on how it talks about how we’ve monetized community and turned most things into a commodity. If you read the book, Eisenstein touches on themes from negative-interest economics to the story of value. The biggest chord that resonated with me what that the book was written to:

“align the logic of the mind with the knowing of the heart: to illuminate not only what is possible but also how to get there.”

Sacred Economics envisions a world where people do things for love, not money. What would you be doing in such an economy? Would you be reclaiming a toxic waste dump? Being a “big sister” to troubled adolescents?

Now for my scattered thoughts: Although I love the message, I think the book is passionately optimistic about humanity (ha, the skeptic in me speaks!)… especially in creating a world where people would do things for love, not money. My question is: how do we then get there? Is this is where the non-profit world comes in…and that comes with a truckload of guidelines with the term itself!

Other questions that comes to mind: Why do people place so much value on money in the first place? Why do people associate identity with their jobs? How do we make place in our society for a gift economy? And most importantly, how do we work within current structures in order to do the things we love?

Credit: Thanks to Mark McCoy for inspiring this post.

P/s: You can read Sacred Economics here.

My Week’s Discoveries

1) American Booty – The story of Sara Blakely, the youngest self-made billionaire as founder of Spanx

A hugely inspirational story on the quality of perseverance. Sara only had $5,000 to create Spanx, and she created a company, self-wrote her patent and developed a prototyped. She understood what women wanted. This is a quick 13min video on her story. Love the fact that she believed in her product so much that she never took no for an answer.

2) Why ‘Shared Value’ Can’t Fix Capitalism – Forbes

Thought-provoking commentary to counter Michael Porter’s and Mark Kramer’s idea of ‘Shared Value’. Worth a read to get you thinking about what aspects of capitalism needs ‘fixing’ and what doesn’t.

3) Launch of Women INvesting in Women INitiative (WIN-WIN)Calvert Foundation 

A highly encouraging piece of news that I celebrated for International Women’s Day. Calvert Foundation launched WIN-WIN with $20mm to be invested in high impact organizations and global projects to create financing opportunities for women.

4) Where did social enterprise come from, anyway? GOOD Magazine

Useful summary of the sector, including the legal aspects of social enterprises. Not sure if the founding of Ashoka started carving out the space – my personal take is that Drayton was one of the first that popularized the concept/language. Then again, does understanding of the space come with understanding of language. hm…

5) Tools and Resources for Assessing Social Impact – Foundation Centre

Toolkits and reports galore. From BACO by Acumen Fund to FSG‘s Guide to engaging stakeholders. Seriously great database.

Identifying the Next Steps for Impact Investing

A report by Credit Suisse and the Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship was released this week on the topic of impact investing at the World Economic Forum’s annual meeting (Davos). A great overview of the current landscape, it is worth a read, particularly Mark Kramer‘s and Sir Richard Branson‘s interviews and comments on the sector.

Investing_for_impact Credit Suisse – Schwab Report

The report lead me down an interesting thought path on the “next steps” of the sector…

Evidence:  The report highlights several successful social enterprise models that are part of Schwab’s network. My personal favourite was Bam Aquino of Hapinoy in the Philippines – investment funds that creates sustainable distribution channels and business development strategies to empower formerly isolated and informal sectors of the Filipino economy. The report above, complements the Data Driven JP Morgan-GIIN report, that drills drown into the numbers and breakdown of social enterprise in different sectors.

As a next step, I would love to see a report that focusses more on the accessibility and availability of investments in the space – from an investors perspective. Coming from an asset-management background, I have developed a strong belief that understanding the investment is just as important as knowing your investment options. Currently, main-stream investor’s exposure of ‘social’ in investments are SRI offerings – they need to be educated on different entry points and impact investing product offerings ranging from an institutional and private client perspective. A great starting point to this step is Impact Asset’s 50: A listing of Impact Fund Managers.

Failure: With the industry in a growth stage, as great as it is to know the successes and the landscape, it is just as important to know the failures. Where did we go wrong? What worked? How did you manage to pivot? How do you prioritize your mission and your finances? When did you know the time to scale? There is such a stigma with failure in the non-profit/charity world. This stigma should NOT be carried forward into the impact investing/social enterprise sector. Failure is a gift – and the ability to speak freely to learn from them, should be embraced by this sector. A wonderful example of embracing failure is the EWB Canada’s Failure Reports. I would love to see a similar initiative in the impact investing sector. Even internally within organizations – as a start.

Road-Map: There is a wealth of information on impact investing that has been churned up within the last few years or so. The issue is knowing where to look: from funding social enterprises to exiting an investment. A natural next step to this would be for various stakeholders to share their “how-tos” and points of consideration in the impact sector. Some organizations have already begun to pave the way for this, but what we need is for more road-maps to appear so at the very least, when you’re at the starting line – you have a general sense of direction on where to go.


Invest2Innovate: Addressing the Disconnect in the Social Enterprise Space

*The post below was orig­i­nally pub­lished on on Nov 25, 2011

In the social enterprise world, one key issue that constantly resurfaces, as it would in any growing sector, is one of funding and identifying a proper investment pipeline. The accessibility and  availability of start-up funding is crucial to startups, and in the case of social enterprises, a largely untapped market. Here’s whereInvest2Innovate (i2i) comes into the picture. They are a social enterprise intermediary that supports the growth of social entrepreneurship in new markets, helping funders and early stage entrepreneurs see eye to eye.

I had the opportunity to connect with Kalsoom Lakhani the founder and CEO of i2i to interview her about her recently launched social enterprise. A trailblazer and native to Pakistan, Lakhani launched i2i’s pilot in Pakistan in September 2011 with plans to expand operations to other countries post 2012. Here’s what she has to say about her startup and the space:

1) What is most interesting to you right now in the social enterprise space? 
There are many interesting innovations taking place right now – from groundbreaking SMS crowd-mapping tools to agriculture-based innovations for small farmers. Innovative tools & approaches of engaging and empowering low-income communities are coming up constantly. But I’m also extremely interested in the growth of the impact investment space, and where we are right now in terms of the community as an emerging asset class, whether or not this type of investment breeds better social impact metrics, and whether the capital is flowing to the right places. There are still a lot of spaces we need to fill when it comes to connecting capital to social enterprises, particularly at the early-stage, and it’s interesting to see how crowd-funding and other innovative ways of raising capital are becoming potential solutions to help fill that gap.

2) Why start up i2i? Why is this the time to enter into the market? 
i2i was launched in order to help address some of the disconnects in the social entrepreneurship space. Prior to launching the company, I worked in venture philanthropy for over three years, providing seed funding and support to early-stage social enterprises mainly in Pakistan. I was first exposed to the “space” then, and quickly immersed myself in all things social entrepreneurship & innovation. It has been fascinating and motivating to see growing ecosystems in markets like India, Latin America (Mexico, Brazil, Chile are good examples), and East Africa. Beyond higher access to capital (a lot of impact investors operate in these countries), we’ve seen the growth of other players that further support social enterprise – incubators, accelerators, government policies (in some cases), intermediaries, etc.

i2i was founded to take a similar ecosystem approach in the “untapped” markets – that’s a lot of jargon I know, but essentially we provide tailored services to early-stage social enterprises to grow their businesses and connect them to capital. Pakistan, our pilot market, is a great example of a country where there is a significant need for more innovative and market-based approaches to development – 66% of the population live on under $2 a day – but where the environment for social entrepreneurship is relatively new. Entrepreneurs often lack the tools & services to maximize the potential of their models and attract capital, especially in markets like Pakistan, where the volatile political and security situation hurt the investor environment. There is a lot opportunity for i2i, as an intermediary, along with other partner organizations, to be the architects of the ecosystem, fostering the social entrepreneurship space both from the top-down and the bottom-up.

3) What is the biggest misconception you see in the world of social enterprise and where do you stand on the issue? 
I think the biggest misconception in social enterprise is that it’s ok to stop at the “warm & fuzzy” and throw the term around irresponsibly. It drives me crazy. Social enterprise ultimately combines the best of the business and the charity world – it begs the question, “Could we magnify social impact if we take a business approach to development?” Social entrepreneurship is not the solution to everything, but in some cases, it can be really effective. For instance, if rural low-income communities that are off the electricity grid use kerosene as their light and heat source, not only is it a costly product, but it poses terrible health and environmental ramifications. Displacing this demand for kerosene with clean energy solutions provides these low-income communities with better alternatives at comparable prices, ultimately contributing to poverty alleviation. Social enterprises need to demonstrate social and/or environmental impact – that is what tends to qualify the “social” in the equation, but at the end of the day, they are businesses that need to have strong models and be sustainable in the long-term. Sometimes that gets lost in the “warm & fuzzy” stories we hear in the space, which are great in communicating an organization’s vision and building a community of supporters, but there needs to be substance behind that story.

4) What is one action would like people to take once they know if i2i? 
If you are a social enterprise, especially in Pakistan (since that is our pilot), get in touch with us to get an assessment of your business and how i2i can provide services (from business development to communications/marketing) to help your organization grow. If you are a potential investor (both for i2i and/or interested in early-stage enterprises in new markets), we’d love to talk to you! And finally, if you are just a supporter, we are always excited to hear your feedback and make our model better.

Kalsoom is a the founder of invest2innovate based in Washington, D.C. She is a co-ambassador for Sandbox, a global network of innovators under 30, and is also a member of the World Economic Forum’s Global Shapers.  She has written for the Washington Post, the Huffington Post, Foreign Policy, and Pakistan’s Dawn Newspaper. Get in touch:

VANCOUVER+acumen Presentation – Making an Impact through Social Finance

For the past year and a half or so, I have been involved with an incredible group, VANCOUVER+acumen. We’re a volunteer chapter supporting Acumen Fund by actively championing Acumen’s innovative model of patient capital to elevate global poverty. We achieve this by engaging in community, ranging from informational workshops, monthly salons and our annual case competition. As one of the founding members, it has been a great privilege to work alongside such passionate individuals in this space and to continue to create a world beyond poverty.

I’m really excited to announce that I will be speaking at the inaugural Canadian Global Impact Investing meetup in Vancouver on behalf of the group – sharing the acumen model (both on a global and chapter level) to the impact investing community in Vancouver. The event will be held on Wednesday, Nov 23rd from 6:30pm – 9pm at SFU Segal Graduate School of Business in downtown Vancouver. You can check out more details about the event here.

Three other organizations will also be presenting at the event: Vancity, Global Catalyst Initiative and Opportunity International Canada. Also, at the event, they will be giving away door prizes ( 2 books I couldn’t recommend highly enough): Impact investing: Transforming How We make Money While Making a Difference – Jed Emerson, Antony Bugg-Levine and Banker to the Poor – Muhammad Yunus.

See you on the 23rd. Looking forward to connecting with other fellow impact investing/social enterprise champions.